Hoeing can have the same effects as power tilling, but it would take more energy than most gardeners have to match the damage. Used correctly, a hoe causes little damage.
Hoeing is simple, entailing nothing more than grabbing the hoe’s handle. Compared that to the time and effort expended to apply weed killer (mix it up, don protective clothing, spray, then clean the sprayer), start a stubborn tiller’s engine or haul mulch.
(Nothing against mulching, though; a thick layer of some straw or compost blanketing the soil brings many benefits. You just can’t hoe AND mulch to control weeds; it’s one or the other, unless the mulch is a fine material such as sawdust or well-rotted compost.)
You might have an aversion to hoeing because you’ve used the wrong type of hoe or have allowed weeds to grow too big between hoeings. Never wait until you see large weeds before you grab your hoe. Instead, hoe the soil every week or two, and as soon after every rain as the soil crust begins to dry. This way, weed seedlings are killed before they get a firm footing.
If weeds are rampant, the only type of hoe that will kill them is a standard, large-bladed garden hoe, used with a not-very-pleasant chopping motion. This hoe is useful for hilling potatoes or mixing concrete.